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伸展树

利用coverage测试python代码覆盖率

Qians posted @ 2012年10月06日 20:24 in python with tags python udacity 数据结构 软件测试 , 1311 阅读

主程序是一个伸展树(Splay Tree).如下(链接):

class Node:
    def __init__(self, key):
        self.key = key
        self.left = self.right = None

    def equals(self, node):
        return self.key == node.key

class SplayTree:
    def __init__(self):
        self.root = None
        self.header = Node(None) #For splay()

    def insert(self, key):
        if (self.root == None):
            self.root = Node(key)
            return

        self.splay(key)
        if self.root.key == key:
            # If the key is already there in the tree, don't do anything.
            return

        n = Node(key)
        if key < self.root.key:
            n.left = self.root.left
            n.right = self.root
            self.root.left = None
        else:
            n.right = self.root.right
            n.left = self.root
            self.root.right = None
        self.root = n

    def remove(self, key):
        self.splay(key)
        if key != self.root.key:
            raise 'key not found in tree'

        # Now delete the root.
        if self.root.left== None:
            self.root = self.root.right
        else:
            x = self.root.right
            self.root = self.root.left
            self.splay(key)
            self.root.right = x

    def findMin(self):
        if self.root == None:
            return None
        x = self.root
        while x.left != None:
            x = x.left
        self.splay(x.key)
        return x.key

    def findMax(self):
        if self.root == None:
            return None
        x = self.root
        while (x.right != None):
            x = x.right
        self.splay(x.key)
        return x.key

    def find(self, key):
        if self.root == None:
            return None
        self.splay(key)
        if self.root.key != key:
            return None
        return self.root.key

    def isEmpty(self):
        return self.root == None
   
    def splay(self, key):
        l = r = self.header
        t = self.root
        self.header.left = self.header.right = None
        while True:
            if key < t.key:
                if t.left == None:
                    break
                if key < t.left.key:
                    y = t.left
                    t.left = y.right
                    y.right = t
                    t = y
                    if t.left == None:
                        break
                r.left = t
                r = t
                t = t.left
            elif key > t.key:
                if t.right == None:
                    break
                if key > t.right.key:
                    y = t.right
                    t.right = y.left
                    y.left = t
                    t = y
                    if t.right == None:
                        break
                l.right = t
                l = t
                t = t.right
            else:
                break
        l.right = t.left
        r.left = t.right
        t.left = self.header.right
        t.right = self.header.left
        self.root = t

测试如下(链接):

import unittest
from splay import SplayTree

class TestCase(unittest.TestCase):
    def setUp(self):
        self.keys = [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9]
        self.t = SplayTree()
        for key in self.keys:
            self.t.insert(key)
       
    def testInsert(self):
        for key in self.keys:
            self.assertEquals(key, self.t.find(key))

    def testRemove(self):
        for key in self.keys:
            self.t.remove(key)
            self.assertEquals(self.t.find(key), None)

    def testLargeInserts(self):
        t = SplayTree()
        nums = 40000
        gap = 307
        i = gap
        while i != 0:
            t.insert(i)
            i = (i + gap) % nums

    def testIsEmpty(self):
        self.assertFalse(self.t.isEmpty())
        t = SplayTree()
        self.assertTrue(t.isEmpty())

    def testMinMax(self):
        self.assertEquals(self.t.findMin(), 0)
        self.assertEquals(self.t.findMax(), 9)

if __name__ == "__main__":
    unittest.main()

运行:

(rrandom)-(~/python-codes/udacity/RegehrCS258)-(07:27 下午 六 10月 06)
-> py splayTest.py 
.....
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Ran 5 tests in 1.454s

OK

但是否每一行代码都运行过了呢?代码覆盖律(code coverage)就是指测试中代码的运行的程度.如果代码覆盖律小于100%.那就意味着还有语句没有被执行.这时候就要coverage出场了.

(rrandom)-(~/python-codes/udacity/RegehrCS258)-(07:42 下午 六 10月 06)
-> coverage erase;coverage run splayTest.py;
.....
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Ran 5 tests in 2.294s

OK

erase是清空上次的数据.coverage 还可以生成html,方便查看

(rrandom)-(~/python-codes/udacity/RegehrCS258)-(07:50 下午 六 10月 06)
-> coverage erase;coverage run splayTest.py;coverage html -i
.....
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Ran 5 tests in 2.298s

OK

得到结果:

Module statements missing excluded coverage
Total 130 9 0 93%
splay 98 9 0 91%
splayTest 32 0 0 100%

查看详细.是那些语句没有被执行:

excluded表示你告诉coverage忽略的代码.

现在尝试修改测试代码.删除一个不在树里的节点:

    def testRemove(self):
        for key in self.keys:
            self.t.remove(key)
            self.assertEquals(self.t.find(key), None)
        self.t.remove(-999)

再次运行coverage:

(rrandom)-(~/python-codes/udacity/RegehrCS258)-(07:50 下午 六 10月 06)
-> coverage erase;coverage run splayTest.py;coverage html -i
....E
======================================================================
ERROR: testRemove (__main__.TestCase)
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "splayTest.py", line 22, in testRemove
    self.t.remove(-999)
  File "/home/rrandom/python-codes/udacity/RegehrCS258/splay.py", line 39, in remove
    self.splay(key)
  File "/home/rrandom/python-codes/udacity/RegehrCS258/splay.py", line 86, in splay
    if key < t.key:
AttributeError: 'NoneType' object has no attribute 'key'

----------------------------------------------------------------------
Ran 5 tests in 2.382s

FAILED (errors=1)

这是一个不在预期内的错误.但是这一行却没有被执行.

那么错误应该在self.splay(key)内.

参考:Udacity CS258 unit2


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